More than 400 people have been killed, and more than 15,000 arrested, rights groups say. The protests began after the death of 22-year-old Mahsa Amini. Morality police were accused of beating her to death over an alleged violation of the country’s dress code. Iran’s Guidance Patrol was formally created in the 1990s to punish any violations of Islamic republic’s strict, though at times arbitrarily enforced, religious rules and dress codes. The unit’s power and the state’s enforcement of hijab rules have ebbed and flowed over the years.